Jambi Rulers

The Jambi Melayu Kingdom has several legends about how it originated. None of them can be authenticated with great historical accuracy. Many of these legends, still to this, day carry tremendous weight in the minds and beliefs of the Jambi populace.

The most common legend of how Jambi originated is that a man from Turkey arrived in the eastern part of the Jambi Province. There he married a princess, or a descendant from one of the rulers of the Minangkabau / West Sumatran kingdom.  The man’s name was Ahmad Salim (other records say “Ahmad Barus,” or “Barus II”). After he married into the royal family, he received the title of “Datuk Paduko Berhalo.” (That is the local dialect spelling. In the Indonesian language it is spelled Datuk Paduka Berhala).

This title means:
Datuk: headman
Paduka(o): excellency (his excellency)
Behala(o): Pulau Berhala (Statue Island) is the name of an island off the coast of Jambi where this man was said to have landed on his trip from the country of Turkey. It is also the location of where his grave is located. He was said to have destroyed the Hindu/Buddhist shrines and statues on Pulau Berhala, spurred on in his zeal to spread Islam.

The princess’ name was: Putri Selaras Pinang Masak (1460). Her exact linage has been difficult to ascertain.

Grave of Putri Selara Pinang Masak

Below is a list of this couples four children, of whom two or three are said to have become rulers (kings). Orang Kayo Hitam (the second or third son of Ahmad Salim, depending on what reference / legend you read) is the one who is accredited as having started this Jambi Kingdom, although there’s evidence that there were settlements, a kingdom, or village/city called “Jambi” in this area for well over 500 years before him:

The Four Children:

 Sultans of the Jambi Kingdom

The title of “sultan” began to be used in the early 1600’s when Islam entered and eclipsed the dominant Hindu / Buddhist religions.

  1. Brahmana Sakti~~3rd century
  2. Hiyang Sari Sakti ~~4th centtry
  3. Sailendra Sakti ~~ 6-7th century
  4. Srimat Trailokia Rajo Maulibusanamawardewa (1178-1375)
  5. Rendra Maulibusanamawardewa (1275-1347)
  6. Aditya Warman, who carried the title: Rajo Mahadirajo (1346-1376)
  7. Anang Warman, who carried the title: Sutan Maharajo Dirajo (1376-1409)
  8. Tun Telanai, who carried the title: Rajo Alam Jamhur Barajo (1409-1460)
  9. Putri Selaras(o) Pinang Masak (1460-1480)
  10. Orang Kayo Pingai; alt. spelling: Orang Kayo Pinang (1460-1480)
  11. Orang Kayo Kedataran; alt. spelling: Orang Kayo Pedataran (1490-1500)
  12. Orang Kayo Hitam (1500-1515)
  13. Pangeran Hilang Diaer Panembahan Rantau Kapas (1515-1540)
  14. Panembahan Rengas Pandak (1540-1565)
  15. Panembahan Bawah Sawo (1565-1590)
  16. Panembahan Kotabaru (1590-1615)
  17. Sultan Abdul Kahar (1615-1643)  VOC arrived in Muara Kumpeh (1616-1625). The king of Johor put pressure on the Sultan to submit to his rule (1630)
  18. Pangeran Depati Anom (Sultan Agung Abdul Jalil) (1643-1665) (Treaty made between the Sultan and the VOC)
  19. Raden Penulis or Sultan Seri Ingologo (1665-1690) There was war between Jambi and Johor (1667). VOC assisted Jambi in that war. There was a conflict between the VOC and the Sultan. The Sultan was exiled to Batavia (Jakarta). VOC installed a new Sultan.
  20. Pangeran Depati Cakranegara (Sultan Kiyai Gede) (1690-1696)
  21. Sultan (Pangeran) Mahmud Syah (1696-1740). Another king began to reign from 1696 to 1721 in the city of Muara Tebo. His name was Suthan Sri Maharajo Batu. The crown prince, or prime minister was Raden Culip.
  22. Sultan Istra Ingologo (1740-1790)
  23. Sultan Anom Seri Ingologo (Sultan Akhmad Zainuddin—1770-1790)
  24. Mas’ud Badaruddin (Sultan Ratu Sri Ingalogo—1790-1812)
  25. Raden Danting (Sultan Muhammad Mahidin / Sultan Agung Sri Ingalogo Alamsyah—1812-1833)    Husband of Putri Ayu.
  26. Sultan Muhammad Fachruddin (1833-1841).  Pressured by the Dutch to sign a treaty.
  27. Sultan Abdul Rahman Nazaruddin (1841-1855 AD).
  28. Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin(1855….-1904). Opposed the Dutch till his death in 1904 at the village of Betung Bedarah. He was a “sultan in hiding” from 1858 till the day of his death, having been pursued by the Dutch. During that time the Dutch appointed other sultans. The overlapping of dates of his “sultanship” is for the purpose of historically showing Jambi’s opposition to the Dutch installment of the follow three sultans.

    Sultan Thaha

Sultans that were considered “Shadow Sultans” (puppets), having been installed by the Dutch. (Many references say that Sultan Thaha was the last duly installed sultan, and the following three should not be honored with the historical title.

  1. Raden Akhmad (Sultan Akhmad Nazaruddin—1858-1881)
  2. Sultan Akhmad Mukyidin (1881-1885)
  3. Pangeran Surio (Sultan Ahmad Zainuddin; also titled: Sultan Bayang—1886-1899)

Dutch Colonial Period (the name given to these Dutch leaders was “Residen”)

  1. O.L. Helfrich (1906-1908)
  2. A.J.N Engelemberg (1908-1910)
  3. Th. A.L. Heyting (1910-1913)
  4. A.L. Kamerling (1913-1915)
  5. H.E.C. Quast (1915-1918)
  6. H.L.C. Petri (1918-1923)
  7. C. Poortman (1923-1925)
  8. G.J. Van Dongen (1925-1927)
  9. H.E.K. Ezerman (1927-1928)
  10. J.R.F. Verschoor Van Niesse (1928-1931)
  11. W.S. Teinbuch (1931-1933)
  12. Ph.J. Van der Meulen (1933-1936)
  13. M.J. Ruyschaver (1936-1940)
  14. Reuvers (1940-1942)

    Jambi Governor’s Offices Today

Japan Entered Indonesia and Jambi (1942-1945)

  1. Seky Tojoo SW Chokan (Japanese “residen” from 1942-1945)

After Indonesia’s independence, Indonesian regional leaders continued to carry the title of: “Residen.” Jambi was not yet officially a province at this time. The area now known as Jambi was part of a much larger region.

  1. Dr. Segaf Yahya (1945)
  2. R. Inu Kertapati (1945-1950)
  3. Bachsan (1950-1953)
  4. Hoesin Puang Limbaro (1953-1954)
  5. R. Sudono (1954-1955)
  6. Djamin Datuk Bagindo (1954-1957)

1957—Jambi officially became a province.

Hasan Basri Agus: 11th Governor in the Jambi Province

Jambi Governors

  1. M. Joesoef Singedekane (1957-1967)
  2. H. Abdul Manap (f) (1967-1968)
  3. R.M. Noer Atmadibrata (1968-1974)
  4. Djamaluddin Tambunan, SH (1974-1979)
  5. Eddy Sabara (1979)
  6. Masjchun Sofwan, SH (1979-1989)
  7. Drs. H. Abdurrahman Sayoeti (1989-1999)
  8. Drs. H. Zulkifli Nurdin, MBA (1999-2005)
  9. Dr. Ir. H. Sudarsono H. SH. MA (2005)
  10. Drs. H. Zulkifli Nurdin, MBA (2005-2010)
  11. Hasan Basri Agus (2010-……)